Roots of Resilience

Tag Archives: Grazing

Marketing Sessions at Northwest Grazing Conference 2017

photo with close up of grass in foreground and cows eating in mid-ground

Cows dining on good organic grass at Pride and Joy Dairy. Photo courtesy of Pride and Joy Dairy

Get the Most Value from Your Grass-Based Meat,  Dairy, Wool, and Leather

Marketing Your Sustainably-Raised Products

You put extra work and investment into your farm or ranch. You create healthy soil, healthy landscapes, and healthy animals. And high-quality, healthy products for your customers.

How do you market those products to earn a living and invest back into your operation?

Check out these marketing sessions at Managing for Resilience: Northwest Grazing Conference 2017.

Getting Your Good Meat to Market: Processing, Pricing, and Marketing

You go through the effort to produce high quality meat. Now you need to sell it in order to sustain your grass farming livelihood. In this workshop, Rebecca Thistlethwaite of the Niche Meat Processing Assistance Network and Tracy Smaciarz of Heritage Meats will give marketing tips. They’ll talk about working with your processor, developing good cutting instructions, packaging and labeling tips, selecting market channels, building a brand, and pricing strategies.

Rebecca is a farm and sustainability consultant. She’s the author of Farms with a Future: Creating and Growing a Sustainable Farm Business, Chelsea Green Publishing. 2013, and The New Livestock Farmer: The Business of Raising and Selling Ethical Meat, Chelsea Green Publishing, June, 2015. In addition to presenting a workshop, she will have her books available for purchase and signing at the conference.

Tracy is president and head butcher of Heritage Meats, a business begun by Tracy’s father in 1977. Tracy helps independent small growers market their meat products to local restaurants and retailers.

Tracy’s collaborations include Full Circle Farm, the largest Community Supported Agriculture program in Washington State,  and world-renowned Canlis restaurant chef Jason Franey.

Grass-Fed Dairy Marketing

Allen Voortman, owner of Pride and Joy Dairy in Granger, Washington, will lead a session on dairy marketing. Pride and Joy Dairy is the rare certified organic raw-milk dairy in Washington State. They are totally grass-based and market their products directly to consumers.

Voortman’s presentation at our field day last fall was hugely popular and we’re please to have him back for the Grazing Conference.

Land-to-Market Program

The Roots of Resilience team will introduce the new Land-to-Market (L2M) program being prototyped by the Savory Institute. Land to Market will provide verification to consumers for meat, dairy, leather, and wool. It’s designed to create a production system and market for products that regenerate land and human health.

The L2M program is developing an ecological outcome verification tool to allow robust measurements of key indicators of ecosystem health. Come to this session to learn how you can participate.

Register Now for Northwest Grazing Conference 2017

Find out more and register for Managing for Resilience: Northwest Grazing Conference 2017 on the main conference page.

Grazing Conference Early Registration Deadline Extended

Closeup photo of grasses and forbs

NRCS photo by Tracy Robillard

Good News Procrastinators!

Grazing Conference Early Registration Extended to April 26

Too busy filing your income taxes to register for Northwest Grazing Conference 2017? We understand. Just for you, we’ve extended the early registration deadline to April 26.

If you’ve been planning to sign up but haven’t gotten around to it, now’s your chance.

More conference info on our main conference page, or

Click on this Register now button to register for the conference

Thank You Conference Sponsors

Soil Builder

Logo for Country Natural Beef Co-opInnovator

Southworth Brothers Ranch

Pacific Intermountain Mortgage Company

Land Trusts, Conservation Groups, and Agencies—Grazing Conference Sessions Just for You

Close up photo of diverse rangeland species. Yellow and blue flowers

Improving rangeland diversity. NRCS photo by Bob Nichols

Managing Grasslands for Climate Resilience and Environmental Restoration

Protect Grasslands, Regenerate Soil, Sequester Carbon

Do you own, manage, or hold conservation easements on grasslands? Or do you work with ranchers or owners or managers of grazing land? Learn how grasslands can be managed to:

  • Increase soil carbon sequestration
  • Improve water infiltration, water quality, and riparian habitat
  • Restore soil health
  • Reduce fire risk
  • Produce more forage (and more profit)

By permanently protecting eligible grassland, you might even be able to get paid for carbon credits.

These topics and more will be presented at the Northwest Grazing Conference 2017: Managing for Resilience, May 10 and 11, Pendleton Convention Center, Pendleton. Oregon.

Find more info at the main conference page. Ready to sign up? You can

Click on this Register now button to register for the conference

Grassland Carbon Credits—Get Paid to Permanently Protect Grassland

Max DuBuisson, Director of Policy for the Climate Action Reserve; Mik McKee, The Climate Trust; and Rebecca Haynes, Environmental Defense Fund, will present a session on carbon offset credits.

Learn how you can earn carbon offset credits for permanently protection grasslands in the Grassland Carbon Credits session on day two of the conference.

Markets for carbon offset credits have existing for more than 20 years, gaining significant size and maturity in the last decade. However, these markets have only recently been able to provide incentives for grassland conservation

In 2015 the Climate Action Reserve, a private, nonprofit carbon offset registry, developed an offset project protocol for the avoided conversion of grassland to cropland. These projects are attractive to landowners who are interested in long-term conservation, but require additional incentive to commit to permanent protection. They are also attractive to land trusts who need an additional source of funding to support conservation activities.

The long-term management of a grassland carbon project dovetails neatly with the existing work of land trusts. Also in 2015, the Reserve, along with several partners, received a two-year Conservation Innovation Grant from the USDA NRCS to support implementation and outreach related to grassland carbon projects. This session will include an introduction to carbon markets, a basic overview of the grassland protocol, how to assess the feasibility of a grassland project, and information regarding the project economics.

More Sessions on Land Conservation and Restoration

Water Quality and Riparian Management

Tipton Hudson, Kittitas County Director, Washington State University Extension focuses on sustainable rangeland grazing, ecosystem monitoring, and protecting and improving riparian function and watershed health through smarter grazing practices. He works with ranchers, regulators, and natural resource professionals to support the adoption of management practices that improve rangeland conditions and water quality.

Tip’s session on Water Quality and Riparian Management will be repeated both days.

Soil Carbon Sequestration

Peter Donovan, co-founder of the Soil Carbon Coalition, believes opportunity for increasing carbon and water in the soil is huge. And that increasing soil carbon will help drive improvement in social and economic conditions as well as enhance biodiversity and ecological resiliency.

Peter has spent the past several years touring the country collecting soil carbon data as part of the Soil Carbon Challenge. He will share what he’s learned through his many years of practicing Holistic Management and working with innovative natural resource stewards.

Peter’s session on Soil Carbon Sequestration will be on day two of the conference.

Targeted Grazing

Karen Launchbaugh, rangeland scientist and Director of the University of Idaho Rangeland Center, is  editor of Targeted Grazing: A Natural Approach to Vegetation Management and Landscape Enhancement, a handbook on grazing as a new ecological service.

From the Introduction to Targeted Grazing, by Dr. Launchbaugh and John Walker:

“Grazing by wild and domestic animals is a powerful natural force working in all ecosystems. The kind and abundance of plants that characterize any plant community are a result of the climate, soils, and herbivores including insects, wildlife, and livestock that inhabit that place. The regenerative or destructive power of herbivory to shape plant communities has been demonstrated time and time again as humans have managed the grazing of domestic livestock. For better or worse, livestock grazing has been applied for thousands of years in ways that change plant communities. Along with fire, grazing is the oldest vegetation management tool.

“Today, livestock grazing is being rediscovered and honed as a viable and effective tool to address contemporary vegetation management challenges, like controlling invasive exotic weeds, reducing fire risk in the wildland-urban interface, and finding chemical-free ways to control weeds in organic agriculture. The challenge of converting livestock grazing from a ubiquitous land use into a powerful vegetation shaping tool requires a paradigm shift for both land managers and livestock producers.”

Dr. Launchbaugh’s session is on day two of the conference.

Targeted Grazing and Fire Control

Chris Schachtschneider will continue the targeted grazing theme. Chris is Livestock and Natural Resource Assistant Professor with University of Oregon Cooperative Extension, Umatilla County. He will present his recent research on where and how targeted livestock grazing can play a role in fire control.

Chris’s session is on day two of the conference.

Biochar to Improve Degraded Range

Jim Archuleta, is a Forest Soil Scientist with Umatilla National Forest. He’s also a member of the steering committee of the Northwest Biochar Working Group. Jim has collaborated on research on how land managers can convert waste wood to biochar that is used to improve degraded soil.

Forest managers remove excess wood from forests to reduce wildfire hazard. The woody material is typically burned in slash piles. This process can harm soil and pollute the air with smoke and particulate emissions. Burning the wood in the absence of oxygen creates charcoal (biochar). This process reduces air pollution and the harmful impacts on the soil.

The biochar can be applied to soil to improve soil productivity and water infiltration. Biochar is a stable form of carbon, so this also sequesters more carbon in the soil.

Jim’s session will be on day two of the conference.

Intros to Holistic Management Land Planning and Monitoring Methods

Everything you wanted to know about Holistic Management, but were afraid to ask!

The Roots of Resilience Team will be presenting introductions to the full suite of Holistic Management land planning and monitoring methods. These sessions will all be on day two of the conference.

  • Introduction to Holistic Management—how to develop a Holistic Context for decision making and test your decisions based on your context
  • Introduction to Monitoring—the basics of ecological monitoring and recognizing indicators of ecological health
  • Introduction to Holistic Land Planning—how to plan for infrastructure and other improvements to your land
  • Holistic Planned Grazing—an extended afternoon session on how to develop a grazing plan that that puts your animals in the right place at right time for the right reason

More conference info at the main conference page or, if you’re ready to sign up, you can

Click on this Register now button to register for the conference

Thank You Conference Sponsors

Soil Builder

Logo for Country Natural Beef Co-opInnovator

Southworth Brothers Ranch

Pacific Intermountain Mortgage Company

Save the Date! Holistic Management Grazing Conference 2017 Scheduled for May 10 & 11

Photo of attendee discussion at the Roots of Resilience 2015 Grazing Conference

Informal discussion among conference attendees and presenters is as valuable as formal presentations at the Grazing Conference

Join Us in Pendleton for the Roots of Resilience Holistic Management Grazing Conference 2017

Be sure to mark your calendar for the Roots of Resilience 2017 Grazing Conference.

Dates: May 10 & 11, 2017

Location: We’re excited to be holding our 2017 Holistic Management Grazing Conference at the Pendleton Convention Center in Pendleton, Oregon.

Program Schedule, Registration, & Other Details

We are currently firming up our workshop schedule. To get on our list for email updates, please email us at

Want to be part of the conference?

Interested in presenting a workshop, panel discussion, or other session? Would you like to be a conference sponsor or exhibitor? Please contact our conference chair, Doug Warnock,, with your ideas.

Everything You Want to Know About Farming But Were Afraid to Ask

Photo of beef cattle grazing on a lush green hillside

Spokane Small Farm Expo to Feature Livestock Workshops by Roots Educators

This year’s Small Farm & Food Expo in Spokane, Washington, is coming up November 5. Choose from dozens of classes.

This full-day conference full day of classes and speakers will have lots of useful information for every small acreage farmer, garden enthusiast, and foodie. There’s even a special youth track.

Roots of Resilience is curating the livestock sessions, including:

Low Stress Livestock Handling

This 2-hour course includes a combination of classroom presentation and practical hands on goat herding. Whether you are a veteran cowpuncher or just getting started in livestock, this hands-on stockmanship class will give you new skills and tools to help you work with your stock’s natural instincts to get them to go where you want them and make them feel like it was their idea!

Introduction to Large Livestock

You’ve mastered chickens, maybe you’ve chased a few goats in your day. Staring down a 2,000 lb bull, however, can feel like a big leap. Learn the basics of care, nutrition, and infrastructure requirements for large livestock.

So You Want to Work With Animals (Youth Track)

Working with animals  can be rewarding and fun and sometimes challenging. Here is a chance to learn more about possible career options working with pets, livestock, and other animals—from veterinarian to zoo keeper, from farmer to dog trainer—and more in between.

Should I Call the Vet?

This class provides some guidelines on common farm health issues and tips for deciding when to call the vet or when you can handle it yourself. Learn what constitutes a time sensitive emergency or something beyond the average farmer’s comfort or skill level.

Holistic Grazing Planning

Learn how you can turn your herd or flock into a carbon-sequestering, water-retaining, soil-building, grass-growing machine. By carefully planning when and where your animals will be, you can actually reverse decertification, increase stocking capacity, and have plenty of habitat and feed left over for wildlife. Learn from a team of veterans with decades of experience in Holistic Planned Grazing in this hands-on 2-hour class.

Holistic Land Planning

Too often, farmers are stuck working around crumbling infrastructure. Whether it’s a corral with a poor design, or placement of a production field that isn’t ideal. This class will show you a process to figure out the best possible infrastructure layout for your farm or ranch, and then help you create a path to move from your existing infrastructure layout to the farm of your dreams!

Ecological Land Monitoring

Get scientific and discover ways to monitor ecological factors on your farm or ranch. When you have a baseline, you can monitor changes and improvements based on new techniques you want to try.

Ready to Sign Up?

You can find more info and links to registration at the Expo Home Page.

Still time to register for the Land Monitoring Workshop

Register Now for the June 21—June 22 Holistic Land Monitoring Workshop

Still time to register, but hurry, registration closes Friday, June 17

Monitoring is Key to Improving Your Land’s Health

Photograph of monitoring workshops attendess and instructor in the field making observations and taking notes.

Workshop attendees get hands-on monitoring practice.

In this two-day workshop you’ll learn ecological monitoring principles with hands-on activities. Come home with practical techniques you can use on your own land.

Dates: Tuesday, June 21, 9 am to 5 pm, and Wednesday, June 22, 8 am to 4 pm
Location: Lazy R Ranch, 20811 W Salnave Road, Cheney, WA

Tip Hudson—WSU Extension Rangeland and Livestock Management Specialist
Maurice and Beth Robinette—Owners of the Lazy R Ranch, Holistic Management Educators and Practitioners

More details and registration information for the Ecological Land Monitoring Workshop


Click on this Register now button to register for the workshop

Greener Pastures


Greener Pastures

by Doug Warnock


Promoting Healthy Soil

Healthy soil is the foundation of life on earth. It is the basis for a viable, productive agriculture and plays a crucial role in creating a healthy ecosystem.


This December, people from 190 countries around the world will gather in Paris at the United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP21) to discuss what should be done to sustain a livable climate on this planet. They will be focusing on limiting carbon emissions. We will hear many recommendations from scientists and governmental officials at the conference about how to address this issue.



Healthy soil is the world’s greatest carbon sink and reservoir of water. Regenerating and maintaining healthy soil is one of the most important things that can be done to achieve and support a healthy ecosystem.


Grazing managers have at their disposal one of the most effective and productive tools to regenerate and sustain healthy soil, grazing animals. Properly managed, grazing animals will support a living dynamic ecosystem, achieved through healthy soil.


Soil will be at its best when it is covered with growing, healthy plant life and providing a viable home for micro-organisms and is effective in storing moisture. The plants and their residues protect the soil from eroding and provide nutrients and moisture for the many organisms that live in the soil. When the soil is bare, raindrops dislodge soil particles, beginning the erosion process. When the soil is covered with healthy plants and plant residue, it is much more difficult for invading plants to gain a foothold.

Land Management

The most effective grazing management is a planned, holistic approach to grazing. It includes several key elements: high stock density, limited plant exposure time, adequate recovery time and adaptive decision-making. Higher stock density results in more uniform utilization of the forage, greater animal impact on the soil surface and the plant material and uniform, abundant mineral residues and moisture from the animals’ gut.


By limiting the time of plant exposure to grazing animals, we avoid the possibility of animals biting a plant a second time and insure that adequate plant tissue is left to support plant regrowth. Animals should not be allowed to return to a pasture until the plants have had adequate time to regrow and recover from the last grazing. If animals stay too long or return too soon, the plants can be overgrazed. This reduces plant viability and makes it more difficult to survive. This adaptive management approach must include a process of monitoring to support making wise decisions.


Rangeland and pasture ecosystems are complex biological entities, which are subject to many factors. The manager must be constantly monitoring to know what is taking place and to adjust as needed to keep the grazing enterprise on target and producing the expected results.


With a planned, adaptive management approach, livestock managers will sustain viable, healthy pastures that support healthy soil, which in turn are effective carbon sinks and reservoirs of water. This supports healthy life of all forms, helping to create a healthy planet. Regardless of the discussions and decisions at the Paris conference, planned grazing management offers an inexpensive method to reduce carbon emissions and help restore ecological health.



Doug Warnock, retired from Washington State University Extension, lives on a ranch in the Touchet River Valley where he writes about and teaches grazing management. He is a member of the Pacific Northwest center for Holistic Management.

He can be contacted at    Doug Warnock





Grazing and Fire

Grazing Leads to Greener Pastures

by Craig Madsen, Healing Hooves

Travis Bruner recently published an article on The Wildlife News website claiming that “Grazing Leads to Blazing,” blaming cattle for the severity of this year’s fire season. He makes several common errors in reaching this conclusion.

The tool of grazing can have a beneficial or negative impact on plant communities depending on how well it is managed. It is true that poor management of livestock has resulted in significant changes in the plant community on western rangeland. There are areas throughout the West where overgrazing has resulted in the loss of native bunchgrasses and the invasion of annual grasses such as cheatgrass, but we need to understand what overgrazing really is. Overgrazing occurs when the plant is grazed a second time before it has time to recover from the first grazing. It is the level of management that determines whether or not the tool of grazing has a beneficial or negative impact on the ecosystem, not the simple presence of livestock.

As Aldo Leopold so eloquently stated, we must restore balance with the ““creative use of the same tools that have heretofore destroyed it – axe, plow, cow, fire, and gun.”

 Several studies have shown the beneficial use of the tool of grazing. Planned grazing has been used to reduce the amount of annual grasses on rangelands, as shown in the publication “Grazing Invasive Annual Grasses: The Green Brown Guide,” a publication by USDA ARS. Another study conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range in Southeastern Oregon showed that moderate grazing of sagebrush plant communities with livestock increased the ability of the native plant community to tolerate fire and thus prevent cheatgrass from increasing (“Grazing History influences the response of Sagebrush Plant Communities to Fire, Davies, Svejcar, and Bates”). This study reported in areas where livestock were excluded for more than 50 years after a burn, cheatgrass production went from less than 10 lbs/acre to close to 300 lbs/acre. In the moderately grazed sites, cheatgrass production went from less than 10lbs/acre to about 30 lbs/acre. The significant increase in cheatgrass production in the ungrazed area could lead to more frequent fires. Proper grazing in that context appears to protect the habitat of sage-grouse and other wildlife that are dependent on sagebrush communities.

In both studies it is the proper application of the tool of grazing and animal impact that had the beneficial impact. Animal impact includes all activities of the grazing animal including depositing dung and urine and trampling of vegetation. Due to complexity of the ecosystem and the number of variables to consider in the application of the tool of grazing/animal impact, it takes careful planning and monitoring to get the beneficial results.

There are two key points to keep in mind. First, many plant communities, especially in areas where moisture is poorly distributed through out the year, depend on grazing and animal impact to maintain a healthy plant community. Second, timing is a critical factor in the proper management of livestock. Eliminating grazing from public lands or using artificial timetables for movement and stocking ignore these two points.

 In drier environments the biological activity necessary to break down plant material at the soil surface is limited to times when moisture is available. The grazing animal carries the moist environment needed to break down plant material within its digestive system. In these dry environments grazing and animal impact helps to maintain the vigor of the plants by cycling the nutrients through dung and urine, removing plant material that prevents sunlight from reaching the base of the plant where the new growth is starting, and trampling plant material on the ground which provides soil cover. The plant material on the soil surface reduces the erosive impact of rain drops, allowing for more water to be absorbed versus running off as well as covering the soil to reduce evaporation. Trampling the plant material places it in contact with the ground where microorganisms can break it down and create organic matter, continuing the nutrient cycling process.

Grazing Animals cycle nutrients more effectively than standing dead grass.

Grazing Herbivores Cycle Nutrients

 The role of timing is key factor in the use of the tool of grazing. Timing can be looked at in three ways: (1) the time of year the area is grazed, (2) length of time the animals stays at a specific location, and (3) the length of time before the animals return to a specific location. The correct timing of grazing is influenced by the context of each situation.

For example, assume we have a common situation where the predominant vegetation is annual grasses with a remnant population of native grasses, and our objective is increasing the native grass component. For this very simple grazing plan, our focus will be on preventing the annual grasses from producing seed and limiting livestock utilization on the native bunchgrasses. The time of year to graze will be when the annual grasses are green and the native bunchgrasses are dormant (brown). At this time of year the livestock are going to prefer the green annual grasses. The length of time on the site will be based on when the annual grasses are fully utilized while maintaining the desired stubble height on the dormant native grasses. When to return? The time to return depends on two main factors: regrowth on the annual grasses and whether or not growth has started on the native bunchgrasses. If soil moisture enabled regrowth on the annual grasses but the native bunchgrasses are still dormant, then a second grazing is allowed. If the native bunchgrasses are growing and growth is above the stubble height created by previous grazing, then grazing will be delayed until the native grasses have completed their growth cycle, after seed set. For more information on reducing annual grasses by grazing see the publication “Grazing Invasive Annual Grasses: The Green Brown Guide.”

Mr. Bruner calls for the “passive restoration of the landscape”. I am assuming he means applying the tool of “rest” to the landscape. We may not think of resting the land as a tool but it is a decision and resting the land has an impact.

 The tool of rest is a powerful tool. In moist environments you see an opening in the trees quickly reclaimed by the forest. In drier environments where moisture is not well distributed throughout the year, short term rest can result in native plants recovering from past overgrazing. Long-term rest in these dry environments can have the opposite results. In some situations you see native bunchgrasses dying, increased bare ground and as a result increased erosion. Allan Savory talks about this situation in his TED talk showing pictures of national parks in the Western United States where livestock have been excluded for over 70 years, native plants are dying, and erosion is increasing (

Grazed vs. ungrazed. The grazed area sports new growth.

Note the un-grazed area to the left of the fence. The right side was grazed six weeks before. There is significant green re-growth on the grazed side. The decadent un-grazed side creates more dry fuel for fire.

The tools of grazing, animal impact and rest all have impacts on the land. The impact is dependent on how the tools are applied and the type of environment the where the tools are being used. As with any tool the effect is dependent on how the tool is applied. The tools of grazing and animal impact have been used to reduce annual grasses on rangeland, improve wildlife habitat and increase the absorption of rain. These tools must be applied in a manner that deals with the complexity of the area being managed. Holistic Planned Grazing™ is one method of dealing with the complexity of the ecosystem as well as the context being managed. It planning system that places the right livestock in the right place at the right time for the right reason to meet the landscape objectives. For more information about Holistic Planned Grazing see the following link



Grazing Conference 2015

Grassland Management Featured At Conference

Planned multi-paddock grazing restored soil and vegetation, increased productivity and profitability, while improving the quality of life for ranchers, reported Dr. Richard Teague, Rangeland Research Scientist at Texas A & M University. Teague was the keynote speaker at the grazing conference, Roots of Resilience, held in May at the Washington Family Ranch near Antelope, Oregon.


The grazing conference was sponsored by Country Natural Beef, Washington Family Ranch and the Pacific Northwest Center for Holistic Management (PNCHM).


Teague’s research involves whole ranch units in which the managers are monitoring and adjusting their activities in order to achieve their goals relating to the nutrition and health of soils, plants, animals and the people involved.


He told about a grassland restoration that was accomplished over a ten-year period on the Noble Foundation’s Coffey Ranch. Animal unit days per acre, which is a measure of grassland’s livestock carrying capacity, increased to more than three times its original amount. Teague said the success was achieved by managing for desired outcomes. This type of management is accomplished by having an adequate number of pasture divisions or paddocks so that plant exposure to grazing is for a short time and plants have adequate time for regrowth before being grazed again.


Most of the conference attendees stayed a second day and took in one of two workshops that were offered. Planned grazing was taught by father-daughter team, Maurice and Beth Robinette, of the Lazy R Ranch near Cheney, WA. A workshop on grassland monitoring was taught by a team led by Tip Hudson, WSU Extension Rangeland Specialist, and Sandra Matheson, manager of a beef cattle operation near Bellingham, Washington.20150509_5


Evaluations from the individual participants showed that a majority of attendees want to learn more about planned grazing, biological monitoring and land planning. Financial planning was another topic of interest. PNCHM plans to follow-up with conference participants and schedule additional workshops.


Teague emphasizes the importance of creating an annual grazing plan for the individual ranch, utilizing what was learned from previous years. He has found that ranch management decisions should be based on a goal; land restoration and wildlife needs are to be incorporated into the plan each year; managers should regularly assess the forage available and adjust either stock numbers or the area grazed; and grazing periods should be based on the recovery rate of the plants, which change by season during the growing year.


Planned grazing includes annual planning, monitoring, adjusting as needed and focusing on the triple bottom line, caring for the environment, making a profit and being socially responsible.